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منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية


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افتراضي

Ludwig van Beethoven.
Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced [ˈbeː.to.vən]) (baptized December 17, 1770[1]March 26, 1827) was a German composer. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest composers in the history of music, and was the predominant figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. His reputation and genius have inspired—and in many cases intimidated—ensuing generations of composers, musicians, and audiences. While primarily known today as a composer, he was also a celebrated pianist and conductor, and an accomplished violinist.
Born in Bonn, Germany, he moved to Vienna, Austria, in his early twenties, and settled there, studying with Joseph Haydn and quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. In his late twenties he began to lose his hearing, and yet continued to produce notable masterpieces throughout his life in the face of this personal disaster. Beethoven was one of the first composers who worked as a freelance — arranging sub******ion concerts, selling his compositions to publishers, and gaining financial support from a number of wealthy patrons — rather than being permanently employed by the Church or by an aristocratic court
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Beethoven was attracted to the ideals of the Enlightenment and by the growing Romanticism in Europe. He initially dedicated his third symphony, the Eroica (Italian for "heroic"), to Napoleon in the belief that the general would sustain the democratic and republican ideals of the French Revolution, but in 1804, when Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, he crossed out Napoleon's name on the title page. He renamed the symphony "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il sovvenire di un grand Uomo" ("Heroic Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man"). The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's Ode An die Freude ("Ode To Joy"), an optimistic hymn championing the brotherhood of humanity.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=443026
Scholars disagree on Beethoven's religious beliefs and the role they played in his work. For discussion, see Ludwig van Beethoven's religious beliefs. It has been asserted, but not proven, that Beethoven was a Freemason.[3]
His music

Beethoven was perhaps the greatest master of musical construction, sometimes sketching the architecture of a movement before he had the subject-matter more than dimly in his mind. He was the first composer systematically and consistently to use the interlocking thematic device or "germ-motives" to achieve inter-movement unity in long compositions. Also equally remarkable was his use of "source-motives", which recurred in many different compositions and lent to unity in his life's works. He improved almost every form of music he touched. For example, he diversified even such a well-crystallized form as the rondo, making it more elastic and spacious bringing it closer to the sonata-form.
Beethoven's most recognized, concrete, and original contributions can be grouped into four types:[original research?]
1) The sonata-form movement of titanic and elemental struggle (string quartets Op. 18 No. 4 and Op. 95, the Eroica, 5th and Choral Symphonies, the piano sonatas Pathetique, Appassionata, and C minor Op. 111).
2) The Scherzo of tumultuous, headlong humor and Dionysiac exultation (string quartets Op. 18 No. 6, Op. 59 No. 1, Op. 130 and Op. 131, the 7th and 9th Symphonies, the Piano Sonata in G Op. 14, the Violin Sonata in F Op. 24, and the Cello Sonata in A Op. 69).
3) The ethereal slow movement of mystic exaltation (9th Symphony, string quartets Op. 59 No. 2, Op. 127, Op. 132 and Op. 135, the Hammerklavier Sonata Op. 106, the piano sonatas in E Major Op. 109 and C minor Op. 111, the Emperor piano concerto, The Benedictus of the Missa Solemnis, and the "Archduke" piano trio Op. 97).
4) The expansion and weight given to the 'symphonic' finale (the 3rd, 5th and 9th symphonies, the "Waldstein" and "Hammerklavier" piano sonatas, and the Grosse Fuge - the original finale from the string quartet in B-flat, Op. 130).
Beethoven composed in a great variety of genres, including symphonies, concerti, piano sonatas, string quartets and other chamber music, masses, opera, lieder, and various other genres. He is viewed as one of the most important transitional figures between the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history.
As far as musical form is concerned, Beethoven built on the principles of sonata form and motivic development that he had inherited from Haydn and Mozart, but greatly extended them, writing longer and more ambitious movements. But Beethoven also radically redefined the symphony, transforming it from the rigidly structured four-ordered-movements form of Haydn's era to a fairly open ended form that could sustain as many movements as necessary, and of whatever form was necessary to give the work cohesion.









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افتراضي

INTERNET
The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.
Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, as are many other services including e-mail, file sharing, and others described below.
Creation of the Internet

For more details on this topic, see History of the Internet.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
In 1950, Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT where he served on a committee that established MIT Lincoln Laboratory. He worked on a Cold War project known as SAGE designed to create computer-based air defense systems. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.
Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to Circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The first TCP/IP wide area network was operational by 1 January 1983, when the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet. (This date is held by some to be technically that of the birth of the Internet.) It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged into the NSFNet include Usenet, Bitnet and the various commercial and educational X.25 Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet), was a large privately-funded national computer network with free dialup access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks, especially that of the international X.25 IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time.
The network gained a public face in the 1990s. On August 6th, 1991 CERN, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland publicized the new World Wide Web project, two years after Tim Berners-Lee had begun creating HTML, HTTP and the first few Web pages at CERN.
An early popular Web browser was ViolaWWW based upon HyperCard. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic Web Browser. In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign released version 1.0 of Mosaic and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic/technical Internet. By 1996 the word "Internet" was common public currency, frequently misused to refer to the World Wide Web.
Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks such as FidoNet have remained separate). This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.
Today's Internet

Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (for example peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501-2.html#post443027
As of September 18, 2006, over 1.08 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats
The World Wide Web

For more details on this topic, see World Wide Web.
Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines, like Google, millions worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=443027
Many individuals and some companies and groups have adopted the use of "Web logs" or blogs, which are largely used as easily-updatable online diaries. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work.
For more information on the distinction between the World Wide Web and the Internet itself — as in everyday use the two are sometimes confused — see Dark internet where this is discussed in more detail.









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افتراضي

Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham (1847-1922), inventor and American physicist of English origin, teacher of deaf people celebrates for his invention of the telephone. Bell was born on March 3, 1847 in Edinburgh, and made his studies at the universities of Edinburgh and London. He emigrated in Canada in 1870 and the United States in 1871. In the United States, it taught with deaf-mute the language of “! visible word!”. This system, which was developed by his/her father, a Scottish teacher of the name of Alexander Melville Bell, shows how the lips, the language and the throat are used in the articulation of the sound. In 1872, Bell founded a school for the deaf people in Boston (Massachusetts). The school was then attached to the university of Boston, where Bell was named professor of vocal physiology. It was naturalized American in 1882. As of the eighteen years age, Bell had been interested in the idea to transmit the word. In 1874, whereas it worked on a multiple telegraph, it leads to the invention of the telephone. Its experiments with its assistant Thomas Watson were finally crowned success on March 10, 1876, when the first sentence supplements was transmitted: “! Watson, come here, I need you.!” Other demonstrations, in particular that of 1876 for the Exposure of the centenary of the Independence from the United States in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), presented the telephone at the world and led to the creation of the Company of the Bell telephone, in 1877. In 1880, France decreed in Bell the Volta price of a value of 50.000 frank. With this money, it founded the Volta laboratory in Washington (District of Columbia), where, the same year, him and its associates invented the photophone which transmits the word using lines of light. It invented other apparatuses like the audiometer, used to measure the auditive acuteness, the pendulum with induction, used to locate metal objects in the human body, and the first recording cylinder waxes some, introduces in 1886, which is at the base of the modern gramophone. Bell was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society, and was the president of 1896 to 1904. It founded also the Science newspaper in 1883. After 1895 the interest of Bell went mainly on aeronautics. Its study of the flight started with the construction of large kites and, in 1907, it designed a kite able to transport a person. With a group of associates, whose inventor and American aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss, Bell developed the aileron, a mobile section of the wing of plane which controls rolling. They also developed a landing gear with three wheels, which allowed initially takeoff then the landing on a ground of flight. By applying aeronautical principles to the maritime propulsion, its group started to work on the hydrofoils which move above water at high speed. Its “! hydrodrome!” final natural size, built in 1917, reached and exceeded 113 km/h, and during many years, it was the fastest boat of the world. Bell continued his studies on the causes and the heredity of deafness. They led it to undertake experiments in eugenism, in particular in the breeding of the sheep, and to publish a book entitled Lifespan and conditions associated with longevity (1918). It died on August 2, 1922 with Baddeck, where a museum containing a number of its original inventions is maintained by the Canadian government.









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افتراضي

In 1847, Alexander Graham Bell was born into a family with a passion for communication. His grandfather, also named Alexander Bell, had forged for himself a reputation as an impressive, if under employed, actor and orator. Endowed with a commanding speaking voice and considerable physical bearing, Alexander Bell sought to unleash in others the full potential of the spoken word. His attention was especially drawn to those for whom the act of speaking presented daunting challenges. His work with such individuals led him to publish writings that included, The Practical Elocutionist and Stammering and Other Impediments of Speech. By 1838, he was regularly being referred to in the London press as "the celebrated Professor of Elocution." The elder Mr. Bell infused in his sons David and Melville a similar interest in the mechanics and methods of vocal communication. David's professional and personal pursuits led him to marriage and a career as a teacher of speech in Dublin, while Melville enthusiastically joined his father in his elocutionary endeavors. Melville's keen interest in speech pathologies was undoubtedly sharpened when he found himself falling in love with a deaf woman he would eventually ask to be his wife. Eliza Grace Symonds, a painter of miniatures, was nearly ten years Melville's senior. Nevertheless, her sweet temper and refined intellect were more than enough to win his lifelong adoration and devotion. Despite being held captive in a world of virtual silence, Eliza Grace Bell developed into a talented pianist whose tenacity and determination to "hear" would especially entrance her second of three sons, Alexander Graham Bell.
A REAL SMART ALECK Young Alexander Graham Bell, Aleck as he was known to his family, took to reading and writing at a precociously young age. Bell family lore told of his insistence upon mailing a letter to a family friend well before he had grasped any understanding of the alphabet. As he matured, Aleck displayed what came to be known as a Bell family trademark--an expressive, flexible, and resonant speaking voice. It was through use of this impressive vocal instrument that Aleck forged a unique bond with his deaf mother. Unlike others, who spoke to Mrs. Bell through her ear tube, Aleck chose to communicate with her by speaking in low, sonorous tones very close to her forehead. Young Aleck surmised that his mother would be able to "hear" him through the vibrations his vocal intonations would make. This early insight would prove significant as Alexander Graham Bell went on to develop more elaborate theories regarding the characteristics of sound waves. It would also lend rationale to Bell's opinions as to how the deaf could be assimilated into a world of sound. Edinburgh, Scotland in the mid-19th-century was brimming with scientific and technological developments. Within this inventive milieu, Alexander Graham Bell played the role of attentive observer and eager participant. One truth seemed inescapable: through technology came betterment. At the age of 14, Bell conceived of a device designed to remove the husks from wheat by combining a nail brush and paddle into a rotary-brushing wheel. While visiting London with his father, Aleck was mesmerized by a demonstration of Sir Charles Wheatstone's "speaking machine." Upon their return to Edinburgh, Melville Bell, Sr. challenged Aleck and his older brother to come up with a model of their own. Working out of their home, the industrious pair created an apparatus consisting of a facsimile mouth, throat, nose, maneuverable tongue, and bellow lungs. What's more, the contraption actually produced human-like sounds. Inspired by this success, Aleck went a step further and succeeded in manipulating the mouth and vocal chords of his Skye terrier so that the dog's growls were heard as words.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501-2.html#post443029
"A VERY VALUABLE BLUNDER" With each passing year, Alexander Graham Bell's intellectual horizons broadened. By the time he was 16, he was teaching music and elocution at a boy's boarding school. He and his brothers, Melville and Edward, traveled throughout Scotland impressing audiences with demonstrations of their father's Visible Speech techniques. Combining such ventures with continued study at the University of London, Alexander Graham Bell became intrigued by the writings of German physicist Hermann Von Helmholtz. Von Helmholtz had produced a thesis, On The Sensations of Tone, declaring that vowel sounds could be produced by a combination of electrical tuning forks and resonators. Bell's inability to read German did not deter him from hungrily consuming this information. It did however lead to his making what he would later describe as a "very valuable blunder."
Bell had somehow interpreted Von Helmholtz's findings as stating that vowel sounds could be transmitted over a wire. He would later say of this misunderstanding, "It gave me confidence. If I had been able to read German, I might never have begun my experiments in electricity."
THE DREAMING PLACE In the midst of his early academic and professional success, the young Alexander Graham Bell was buffeted by a series of personal tragedies. Tuberculosis, the scourge of the late 19th century, claimed the lives of both of his brothers within the span of four months. Bell himself was battling the disease when, at age 23, he moved with his parents to Canada. Convalescing in what he called "his dreaming place"--a spacious farmhouse in Brantford, Ontario--Alexander Graham Bell was able to recover in mind and spirit, and dwell on his ever-expanding ambitions.
A TEACHER OF THE DEAF In 1871, Bell began giving instruction in Visible Speech at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes. Attempting to teach deaf children to speak was considered revolutionary, and Bell was not without his detractors as he shunned what he felt were the exclusionary practices of signing and institutionalization. Bell's work with his deaf students in Boston would prove to be a watershed event in his life. One of his pupils, Mabel Hubbard, was the daughter of a man--Gardiner Greene Hubbard-- who would go on to play a vital role in Bell's life and work. While Mabel herself would one day become his wife. Bell felt that a course had been set and he would go on to consider himself, above all else, a teacher of the deaf. In testimony to the effectiveness of his work and generosity of his spirit, no lesser luminary than Helen Keller would dedicate her autobiography to him. THE HARMONIC TELEGRAPH Bell's ideas about transmitting speech electrically came into sharper focus during his days in Boston. As he read extensively on physics and devotedly attended lectures on science and technology, Bell worked to create what he called his "harmonic telegraph." Since Samuel F.B. Morse completed his first telegraph line in 1843, telegraphy had blossomed into a full-fledged industry. This new industry meant nearly instantaneous communication between faraway points. While certainly a technological leap forward, successful telegraphy was nevertheless dependent upon hand-delivery of messages between telegraph stations and individuals. Also, only one message at a time could be transmitted. Drawing parallels between multiple message and multiple notes in a musical chord, Bell arrived at his idea of the "harmonic telegraph." From this idea sprang the invention that made him immortal among inventors--the telephone. A FATEFUL TWANG The chance meeting between Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams was one of the most fortuitous in technological history. Recognized by his employer as being especially skilled in devising tools that improved the efficiency of various instruments, Watson was assigned to work with many nascent inventors. Alexander Graham Bell was just such an inventor. As the two collaborated on ways to refine Bell's "harmonic telegraph," Bell shared with Watson his vision of what would become the telephone. Watson was intrigued, and a partnership was forged. June 2, 1875 was a milestone day for the team of Bell and Watson. Working in the transmitter room and trying to free a reed that had been too tightly wound to the pole of its electromagnet, Watson produced atwang . Bell, who had been working in the receiving room heard thetwang and came running. Bell surmised the complex overtones and timbre of the twang to be similar to those in the human voice. He was now convinced that his vision of sending speech over a wire was more than just a dream.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=443029
PATENT NUMBER 174,465 As Bell raced to perfect his telephone, he was also writing up specifications to be filed with the United States Patent Office in Washington. On March 7, 1876, he was issued patent number 174,465. Meanwhile, Bell had discovered that a wire vibrated by the voice while partially immersed in a conducting liquid, like mercury, could be made to vary its resistance and produce an undulating current. In other words, human speech could be transmitted over a wire.
On March 10, 1876, as he and Mr. Watson set out to test this finding, Bell knocked over what they were using as a transmitting liquid--battery acid. Reacting to the spilled acid, Mr. Bell is alleged to have shouted, "Mr. Watson, come here. I want you!" Exactly what Bell shouted--or whether the spilling of acid ever occurred-- is a matter of some dispute. Its result, however, is not. Watson, working in the next room, heard Bell's voice through the wire. Watson had received the first telephone call, and quickly went to answer it. Seizing upon the opportunity to promote his new invention, Alexander Graham Bell introduced the telephone to the world at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro exclaimed, "My God, it talks," as Bell's mellifluous voice carried Hamlet's soliloquy over the line from the main building one hundred yards away. The success of Bell's telephone was now the talk of the international scientific community. In 1878, Rutherford B. Hayes was the first US president to have a telephone installed in the White House. And to whom did the commander-in-chief place his first call? Alexander Graham Bell, of course, who was waiting for the call some 13 miles away from the White House. The president's first words were said to have been, "Please speak more slowly."
BIG BUSINESS In the wake of Bell's invention of the telephone came an avalanche of patent lawsuits and corporate maneuvers. Western Union Telegraph Company was the titan in the field of telegraphy and was not content to sit on the sidelines as the Bell Telephone Company captured the spotlight. Feverishly working to develop their own telephone technology, Western Union employed two prominent inventors--Thomas A. Edison and Elisha Gray. Looking to protect its patent rights, the Bell Company sued Western Union and won. In the years that followed, the Bell Company (which would eventually become AT&T) would be forced to defend its patent in over 600 legal challenges. In every case, the patent withstood attack thanks largely to Alexander Graham Bell's clear and convincing testimony.
EXPANDING INTERESTS Bell had little interest in playing a day-to-day role in the workings of the company that bore his name. Barely in his thirties, rich and famous, Bell continued to pursue an active life of the mind. His post-telephone inventions included an electric probe used to locate bullets and other metal objects lodged in the body, and the vacuum jacket which, when placed around the chest, administered artificial respiration. Each of these inventions would later be refined and supplanted by other inventors, but Bell's contributions to the world of science and technology never abated. He was a student of nature's mysteries and became fascinated with the notion of motion--in the air and on the water. Working with partners, he experimented with manned kites and hydrofoils. Eager to infuse a love of science and the natural world in others, Bell lent considerable financial and editorial support to both Science magazine and National Geographic. Upon Bell's death on August 2, 1922, the nation's phones stilled their ringing for a silent minute in tribute to the man whose yearning to communicate made them possible.










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افتراضي

Algiers Capital
Capital: Algiers Population: 32,3 million (is 2004) official Language: classical Arabic Groups majority: varieties of Arabic (83,2 %) but particularly the Algerian Arab (60 %) Minority groups: Berber languages (27,4 %), classical Arabic and French, hausa, Tzigane and tadaksahak colonial Language: political French System: unit republic constitutional Articles (language): preamble and art. 3 of the Constitution of 1996 linguistic Laws: the ordinances No 66-154 and No 66-155 of June 8, 1966 on justice; the ordinance of April 26, 1968 on the obligatory knowledge of Arabic for the civils servant; the circular of the ministry for the Interior of July 1976 on posting; the law No 91-05 of bearing 16 January 1991 generalization of the use of the Arab language; the ordinance No 96-30 of December 21, 1996

Algeria (officially democratic and popular Algerian Republic) is a State of the Maghreb bordered in north by the Mediterranean, the east by Tunisia and Libya, in south-east by Niger, south-west by Mali and Mauritania, in the west by Morocco and the Western Sahara (see the detailed chart). On the African continent, Algeria is the second country by its surface (2,3 million km²), whose four fifths are occupied by the Sahara. The name of Arabic Algeria is ir Al-Djazâ', i.e. "islands" by allusion to the some small islands that Barberousse (Turkish corsair which founded Algiers) attached to the town of Algiers in 1517. The French name of Algeria was given in 1839 per Antoine Scheider, Minister for the War, with the "country occupied by the French in the north of Africa".

Algeria is divided into 48 Wilayates (departments or provinces): Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Algiers, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, Me Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Beautiful Sidi Abbots, Skikda, Ahras Souk, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou and Tlemcen. These provinces are divided into 160 sub-prefectures and 1540 communes.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501-2.html#post443031

2 demolinguistic Data the population of Algeria is composed of two important ethnic groups: the Berber ones and Arabs. The majority of the Algerians go down from these two ethnos groups. The Islam (sunnite), practised by nearly 99 % of the population, unifies the Algerian people; the others are catholics of French extraction or Jews. It is however difficult to determine the exact distribution of the Arabs and with Berber, so much their population was mixed during the history. Historically, the Berber ones (called Arabic qabaïl) form oldest of the communities of North Africa and several features of their civilization are in continuity with those of the prehistoric cultures. They occupied all the coast of North Africa, between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean. It is only at the time of the Arab conquest in VIIe century that the Arabs took seat at the side of Berber plains. It is known that practically all the Berber ones were Islamized, but those living the mountains were never arabisés.

2.1 Arabic-speaking people:

Today, the majority of the Algerians are Arabic-speaking people in a proportion of 72 %. Among the Arabic-speaking people, it is the Algerian Arab who dominate clearly with 60 % of the total population and 83,2 % of the Arabic-speaking people. The other Arabic-speaking people speak the hassaniyya (11,3 %), Moroccan Arabic (0,4 %), Arabic of the Sahara (0,1 %), the Egyptian Arabic, even Iraqi Arabic. All the varieties of Arabic belong to the Semitic group of the Hamito-Semitic family. But all the Arabic-speaking people of Algeria speak Algerian Arab to communicate between them. In other words, with the oral examination, it is the Algerian Arab who is used as common language, but with the writing, it is the classical Arabic. The dialectical Arabic, also called wattani ("Arabic of the Algerian nation"), which one speaks in Algeria is particular. In his current form, this Algerian Arab reflects the various stages which it lived during his history. From the lexical point of view, one notes the presence of Berber words such as aïreuj ("strainer"), aghhtal ("snail"), asselwan ("soot"), khemmal ("to clean"), etc, and a great number of other words drawn from the vocabulary of agriculture, the breeding and toponymy. Words like tebsi ("plate"), ma' adnous ("parsley"), braniya ("aubergine"), boukraj ("kettle"), etc, testify to the influence of Turkish in the Algerian Arab. Before the arrival of the French, Spanish words entered the language, for example, fitchta ("festival"), sberdina ("espadrille"), bodjado ("lawyer"), kanasta ("basket"), essekouila ("primary school"), etc.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=443031

The famous humorist and Algerian actor, Mohamed Fellag, thus described its language: "Algerian of the street is a trilingual language, a mixture of French, Arabic and kabyle." In a maintenance, it also declared: But the Algerian Arab in general is not very snuffed by the capacity. He is often qualified like "nonsense" unable to convey a "higher culture". In 1993, the critic Egyptian Taha Husain would have written in connection with the Algerian Arab: "the dialectal one does not deserve to be called language and is not appropriate for the objectives of the intellectual life." In general, the Algerian Arabs do not have any problem to communicate with Arabs of Morocco, Tunisia or Libya, but it is more difficult for them to communicate with the Arabic-speaking people of more distant countries in the Middle East such as Syria, Iraq or Jordan.











عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 16 (permalink)
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

Story

Ali Baba, a poor woodcutter, happens to overhear a group of thieves - forty in all - visiting their treasure store in the forest where he is cutting wood. The thieves' treasure is in a cave, the mouth of which is sealed by magic - it opens on the words "Open, Sesame", and seals itself on the words "Close, Sesame". When the thieves are gone, Ali Baba enters the cave himself, and takes some of the treasure home.
Ali Baba's rich brother, Cassim, finds out about his brother's unexpected wealth, and Ali Baba tells Cassim about the cave. Cassim goes to the cave to take more of the treasure, but in his greed and excitement over the treasures forgets the magic words to get back out of the cave. The thieves find him there, and kill him. When his brother does not come back, Ali Baba goes to the cave to look for him, and finds the body, bringing it home. With the help of Morgiana, a clever slave-girl in Cassim's household, they are able to give Cassim a proper burial without arousing any suspicions about his death.
The thieves, finding the body gone, realize that somebody else must know their secret, and set out to track him down. The first several times they are foiled by Morgiana, who is now a member of Ali Baba's household, but eventually they are able to ascertain the location of Ali Baba's house.
The lead thief pretends to be an oil merchant in need of Ali Baba's hospitality, bringing with him mules loaded with forty oil jars, one filled with oil, the other thirty-seven with the other thieves (the two missing members were the scouts previously sent to find the house, who were killed for their failure). Once Ali Baba is asleep, the thieves plan to kill him. Again, Morgiana discovers and foils the plan, killing the thirty-seven thieves in their oil jars by pouring boiling oil on them. When their leader comes to rouse his men, he discovers that they are dead, and escapes.
To exact revenge, after some time the lead thief establishes himself as a merchant, befriends Ali Baba's son (who is now in charge of the late Cassim's business), and is invited to dinner at Ali Baba's house. The thief is recognised by Morgiana, who performs a dance with a dagger for the diners and plunges it into the heart of the thief when he is off his guard. Ali Baba gives Morgiana her freedom and she marries his son. Thus, the story ends happily for everyone except the forty thieves and Cassim.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501-2.html#post443032
The story has its base in a Sudanese saga of king Ali Baba of the Bija tribe (inhabited near Port Sudan). The king refused to pay the taxes to Al-Mutawakkil, the tenth Abbassi caliph in Baghdad. The rebel king sealed all gold mines in the mountains and stopped central officials from going to the whole Red Sea area. Baghdad did send its army in to keep its power upon the vital gold market in the Islamic world (it's believed that Sudan provided more than sixty percent of the Abbassi gold in the pre-crusade era) and within five years it managed to crush the rebellion. Ali Baba, taken to Baghdad, carried all the gold hidden by his men to the caliph. A public display of the great treasure and the defeated king was shown in all important cities in the road to the capital Samarra creating the legend of the caves and the legend of the thieves. In the end, Ali Baba was granted amnesty in Samarra and upon his return he gave gold to the needy in all major towns in the road as a good gesture to the muslims whom he fought.









عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 17 (permalink)
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الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

EDUCATION IN ALGERIA
The French colonial education imposed on Algeria was designed primarily to meet the needs of the European population and to perpetuate the European cultural pattern. A large majority of the students were children of the colonists. French was the language of instruction, and Arabic, when taught, was offered as an optional foreign language.
Segregated schooling of French and Algerian children was abolished in 1949, and increases in Muslim enrollments were scheduled in the comprehensive 1954 Constantine Plan to improve Muslim living conditions. On the eve of independence, however, the European-oriented curricula were still taught exclusively in French, and less than one-third of school-age Muslim children were enrolled in schools at the primary level. At the secondary and university levels, only 30 percent and 10 percent of the students, respectively, were Algerians.
At the beginning of the 1963 school year, the education system was in complete disarray, and enrollments in schools at all levels totaled only 850,000. In the years immediately following, teachers were trained hastily or recruited abroad; classrooms were improvised, many in the vacated homes of former French residents. Attendance climbed to 1.5 million in 1967, to nearly 3 million by 1975, and to 6.5 million in 1991-92.
At the time of independence in 1962, the Algerian government inherited the remnants of an education system focused on European content and conducted in a foreign language by foreign teachers. Algerian authorities set out to redesign the system to make it more suited to the needs of a developing nation. The hallmarks of their program were indigenization, arabization, and an emphasis on scientific and technical studies. They sought to increase literacy, provide free education, make primary school enrollment compulsory, remove foreign teachers and curricula, and replace French with Arabic as the medium of instruction. They also planned to channel students into scientific and technical fields, reflecting the needs of Algerian industrial and managerial sectors. The approach to education has been gradual, incremental, and marked by a willingness to experiment--unusual characteristics in a developing country.
The high priority assigned by the government to national education was reflected in the amount of money spent on it and on the existence of free schooling at all levels. Between 1967 and 1979, a total of DA171 billion was allocated for operating expenditures in this sector. In 1985 approximately 16.5 percent of the government's investment budget was devoted to education; in 1990 the education sector received 29.7 percent of the national budget.
Algeria received substantial assistance from the World Bank. Between 1973 and 1980, Algeria contracted five education loan agreements for sums totaling US$276 million. The World Bank has continued to provide funds and technical assistance in connection with a fundamental reform of education, the latest phase of which occurred in 1993. The structure of the existing basic and secondary systems was being revised, and much heavier emphasis was being given to technical and vocational schooling.
In the mid-1970s, the primary and middle education levels were reorganized into a nine-year system of compulsory basic education. Thereafter, on the secondary level, pupils followed one of three tracks--general, technical, or vocational--and then sat for the baccalaureate examination before proceeding to one of the universities, state technical institutes, or vocational training centers, or directly to employment. The process of reorganization was completed only in 1989, although in practice the basic system of schooling remained divided between the elementary level, including grades one to six, and the middle school level of grades seven to nine. Despite government support for the technical training programs meant to produce middle- and higher-level technicians for the industrial sector, a critical shortage remained of workers in fields requiring those technical skills.
The reforms of the mid-1970s included abolishing all private education. Formerly, private education was primarily the realm of foreign institutions and schools often run by Roman Catholic missions. Legislation passed in 1975 stipulated that education was compulsory for nine years between the ages of six and fifteen, and that it would be free at all levels. The Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Higher Education were assigned sole responsibility for providing and regulating the education system.
In 1982 about 4 million pupils were enrolled in the nine-year basic education track at a time when the government claimed 81 percent of all six-year-olds were attending school. Attendance approached 90 percent in urban centers and 67 percent in rural areas. Teachers were nearly all Algerian, and instruction was entirely in Arabic, French being introduced only in the third year.
In the 1991-92 school year, about 5.8 million pupils were enrolled in grades one through nine; and the gross enrollment ratios reached 93 percent for the first six years of school and 75 percent for the next three years. Algerian society in the early 1990s was still not fully accustomed to women assuming roles outside the home, and female enrollments remained slightly lower than might have been expected from the percentage of girls in the age-group.
Secondary enrollments totaled 280,000 in 1982, compared with 51,000 in 1962-63. The number of secondary schools increased from thirty-nine to 319 over the decade, while the percentage of Algerian teachers increased from 41 in 1975 to 71 in 1982. French continued as the favored language of instruction in general, particularly in mathematics and science. Despite these impressive gains, enrollments still fell short of planned targets, especially in scientific and technical fields. The same was true of female education. Nationwide, in 1982 girls accounted for 38.8 percent of total enrollments in secondary and technical schools. A great variation also existed between the number of girls attending school in Algiers, where the percentage nearly equaled that of boys, and Tamanrasset in the south, where the percentage dropped to as low as 7. In 1984 national primary and secondary enrollments totaled 5 million.
In 1989-90, secondary school enrollments comprised 44 percent of the school-age population, or a total of 743,000 students, of whom 22 percent had entered the technicums, or technical high schools. The proportion of girls in that cycle of education was as high as that of the previous phase and constituted 44 percent of total enrollment at the secondary level. Teachers were more than 90 percent Algerian at all levels. Arabization of the education system was considered an important objective of the 1990s.
Vocational education at the secondary level received attention as part of the reorganization of the mid-1970s. The program was designed with the requirements of industry and agriculture in mind; students were to be trained as apprentices for up to five years. As of 1990, a total of 325 vocational training schools were in operation, and about 200,000 apprentices were in training. Vocational skills were also taught as part of the national service program, which provided employment and work experience for large numbers of young men.
The major universities in 1993 were the University of Oran, the University of Science and Technology at Oran, the University of Algiers, and universities at Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Constantine, and Annaba and the Houari Boumediene University of Science and Technology. There were also universities of Batna, Blida, Sétif, and Tizi Ouzou and university centers at Bejaïa, Mostaganem, Chelif, and Tiaret. Total higher education enrollment for the academic year 1989-90 was 177,560 students as compared with 103,000 in 1983-84 and close to 8,000 in 1967. Only the Algiers campus predated independence, having been founded in 1909.
The higher education system first adopted by the University of Algiers was based on the French model. As such, it stressed autonomy of the university faculties not only in administration but also in designing curricula and organizing courses of study aimed at particular degrees. The system resulted in unwieldiness, duplication of academic offerings, and complete loss of credits by students changing programs. In addition, it led to a very high attrition rate. Some reforms designed to modernize the university system were introduced in 1971, and major reforms were introduced in 1988. Nevertheless, the universities still loosely resemble the French model, and French remains widely used for instructional purposes. The number of French instructors has declined, however, as the number of Algerian teachers has increased after 1980. In 1981-82, for instance, 64.6 percent of the teachers at all levels of education were Algerian. By the academic year 1990-91, the percentage had increased to 93.4 percent. Arabic was widely taught at the tertiary level, and Zouaouah, the dialect of the Kabyle Berbers, was taught at the University of Tizi Ouzou.
In addition to the universities, a number of state institutes provide specialized technical, agricultural, vocational, and teacher training. Some function under the direct jurisdiction of appropriate ministries and provide one to five years of technical training and job experience for trainees. The Ministry of Energy and Petrochemical Industries and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing each has a number of institutes. Algeria in the early 1990s had more than thirty institutes of higher learning, including technical studies, teacher-training colleges, and Islamic institutes.
Many Algerian students also study abroad. Most go to France or other West European countries, various countries of Eastern Europe, and the United States.
A variety of literacy programs for adults was initiated after 1962, when the national literacy rate was below 10 percent. The Conquest of Literacy program was mounted to help people attain literacy in Arabic or French or both languages. Volunteer teachers held classes on the job, in homes, and in abandoned buildings; old French or Arabic grammars, copies of the Quran, and political tracts were pressed into service as texts. Wide- ranging approaches, including correspondence courses and use of the public media, were introduced during the Second Four-Year Plan, 1974-77. Major responsibility for out-of-school education was assigned to two specialized government agencies. These agencies benefited from technical assistance under the second of the three World Bank education loans, but the main emphasis of the government's education program has been on the rapid development of the formal school system.
Progress in literacy has been noteworthy. About 42 percent of the population was literate in 1977. By 1990 adult literacy had reached 57.4 percent, according to estimates by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); 69.8 percent of Algerian men and 45.5 percent of Algerian women were literate. Because, however, priority has been given to the education of youth, adult illiteracy has not yet received the attention it needs.









عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 18 (permalink)
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

بارك الله فيك
و جزاك كل خير
و نفع بك









عرض البوم صور سوزان   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 19 (permalink)
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

شكراااااااا جزيلااااااااااااااااااااا ااااااااااااااااااااااااا ااااااااااااااااا









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قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 20 (permalink)
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التسجيل: Dec 2010
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

أنا راني نحوس على الإنقراض (en français)
ربي يحفظك









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