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منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية منتدى خاص بجميع بحوث لي مراحل تربوية


موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية و الانجليزية للطور المتوسط

منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية


موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية و الانجليزية للطور المتوسط

تحية عطرة ازفها مني اليكم احبتي واخوتي اعضاء وزوارمنتدانا الغالي منتدى جزائرنا باسم الادارة العامة لمنتدى جزائرنا يسرنا أن نقدم لكم : موسوعة المدرسية لطور باللغة الفرنسية و الانجليزية فأرجو

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الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


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محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
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المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية

موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية الانجليزية dTh10812.gif
موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية الانجليزية wol_error.gifهذه الصورة مصغره ... نقره على هذا الشريط لعرض الصوره بالمقاس الحقيقي ... المقاس الحقيقي 454x96 .موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية الانجليزية fGD10812.gif
تحية عطرة ازفها مني اليكم احبتي واخوتي اعضاء وزوارمنتدانا الغالي منتدى جزائرنا
باسم الادارة العامة لمنتدى جزائرنا
يسرنا أن نقدم لكم :
موسوعة البحوث المدرسية الجاهزة لطور المتوسط باللغة الفرنسية و الانجليزية

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501.html#post442850
فأرجو من الاعضاء الكرام المساهمة في هذه الموسوعة لمن لديه بحث جاهز فلا يبخل به على إخوانه و يمنع منعا باتا وضع طلبات البحوث هنا فأرجو من جميع الاعضاء الاعزاء التفهم و التعاون
و جزاكم الله خيرا و بالتوفيق في دراستكم


موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية الانجليزية wol_error.gifهذه الصورة مصغره ... نقره على هذا الشريط لعرض الصوره بالمقاس الحقيقي ... المقاس الحقيقي 454x150 .موسوعة البحوث الجاهزة بالفرنسية الانجليزية FPz10899.gif





l,s,um hgfp,e hg[hi.m fhgtvksdm , hghk[gd.dm gg',v hglj,s'










عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس

قديم 01-13-2011   المشاركة رقم: 2 (permalink)
المعلومات
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اللقب:
الرتبة
الصورة الرمزية
 
الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
العضوية: 11432
المشاركات: 8,006 [+]
بمعدل : 2.96 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-07-2011 [+]
معدل التقييم:
نقاط التقييم: 124

التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
وسائل الإتصال:

كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

L'Émir Abd-El-Kader
Abd-El-Kader est né à la Guetna près de Mascara en 1808, élevé dans la zaouïa paternelle dirigée par si Mahieddine, il reçoit une éducation solide qu 'il complète auprès des maîtres éminents à Arzew et à Oran. Il apprend les sciences religieuses,la littérature arabe, l'histoire, la philosophie, les mathématiques, l'astronomie, la médecine...
51KO
Les avions
Un avion, selon la définition officielle de l'Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (OACI), est un aéronef plus lourd que l'air, entraîné par un organe moteur (dans le cas d'un engin sans moteur, on parlera de planeur), dont la sustentation en vol est obtenue ...
106KO
Albelhamid Ben Badis
Albelhamid Ben Badis (arabe :عبد الحميد بن باديس), né le 16 avril 1889 à 16:00 (et enregistré le jeudi 5 décembre 1889, au registre de l’état civil) à Constantine, ville au nord-est de l'Algérie, était une figure emblématique du mouvement réformiste musulman en Algérie. Albelhamid Ben Badis était le fils d'une famille de vieille bourgeoisie citadine...
61KO
Béjaïa
Béjaïa (transcrit بجاية en arabe, Bgayet en berbère et transcrit en tifinagh, Bougie en français ou encore Vaga (les ronces) en libyco-berbère et Saldae en romain) est une ville d'Algérie en Kabylie. Elle est aussi le chef-lieu de la wilaya (département) du même nom....
150KO
Computer
Computers take numerous physical forms. The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1941), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed prior. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers...
156KO
Constantine
Constantine est une ville du nord-est de l'Algérie, peuplée de plus de 750 000 habitants. Chef-lieu de la wilaya (département) du même nom, elle est la capitale de l'est du pays et la troisième ville en Algérie, après Alger et Oran.....
15KO
Internet
Internet est le réseau informatique mondial qui rend accessible au public des services comme le courrier électronique et le World Wide Web. Ses utilisateurs sont désignés par le néologisme « internaute ». Techniquement, Internet se définit comme le réseau public mondial utilisant le protocole de communication IP...
10KO
L’ordinateur
L'apparition du courrier électronique (ou email) remonte au début des années 1960. La boîte aux lettres se présentait sous la forme d'un fichier dans le répertoire personnel d'un utilisateur que seul ce dernier pouvait lire. Les applications de messagerie primitives ajoutaient des nouveaux messages de texte au bas du fichier et l'utilisateur devait parcourir tout le fichier qui ne cessait de grandir, afin de retrouver tout message spécifique....
95KO
Pomme de terre
La pomme de terre ou patate (fam./qc et français régional) est un tubercule produit par l'espèce Solanum tuberosum, appartenant à la famille des Solanacées. Il s'agit d'un des légumes les plus consommés en Europe, Amérique du Nord et Amérique du Sud. Introduite en Europe au XVIe siècle, ses qualités alimentaires ont d'abord été méconnues, et on ne savait trop comment la nommer...
10KO
Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo est né à Besançon le 26 février 1802. Fils d'un général de Napoléon, il suivit d'abord son père dans le hasard des expéditions et des campagnes, en Italie, en Espagne, où il fut page du roi Joseph et élève au séminaire des nobles de Madrid. Vers l'âge de onze ans, il vint s'établir avec sa mère, séparée à cette époque du général, à Paris, dans le quartier, presque désert alors, du Val-de-Grâce....
10KO


: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501.html#post442852

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=442852
Environnement
L'environnement est ce qui entoure. C'est l'ensemble des éléments naturels et artificiels où se déroule vie humaine. Avec les enjeux écologiques actuels, le terme environnement tend actuellement à prendre une dimension de plus en plus mondiale....
804KO
Environnement 1
L'environnement est le milieu dans lequel l'individu et/ou le groupe évoluent, ce milieu incluant l'air, l'eau, le sol, leurs interfaces, les ressources naturelles, la faune, la flore, la fonge, les microbes et les êtres humains, les écosystèmes et la biosphère. De nombreux événements récents ont mis en évidence des problématiques diverses affectant la planète et causé la dégradation de l'environnement ...
14KO
Environnement 2
L'environnement est ce qui entoure. C'est l'ensemble des éléments naturels et artificiels où se déroule vie humaine. Avec les enjeux écologiques actuels, le terme environnement tend actuellement à prendre une dimension de plus en plus mondiale....
2849KO
Environnement 3
— les fumées industrielles
— les combustions assurant les chauffages domestiques et urbains
— Les gaz d'échappement des automobiles (1) et de tous les moteurs

— Le brûlage des déchets en dehors des installations prévues à cet effet
— L'envol sous l'effet du vent de produits entreposés sans précautions particulières.
727KO
Le père de Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Ahmed, est né à Tlemcen [1], très jeune il émigre au Maroc. Ahmed Bouteflika était marié à deux femmes : Belkaïd Rabia et Ghezlaoui Mansouriah, sa deuxième femme et la mère de Abdelaziz, elle était gérante d'un hammam. Ahmed Bouteflika est mort en 1958....
44KO
BIOGRAPHIE DE BALZAC
Honoré de Balzac est né à Tours le 20 mai 1799 et il est mort à Paris le 18 août 1850. Il est issu d’une famille bourgeoise et a un frère et deux sœurs...
20KO
Blanche rose et rose rouge
Une veuve vivait dans une maison coquette avec ses deux filles qu’elle avait prénommées Blanche-Rose et Rose-Rouge parce qu’elles ressemblaient aux boutons des deux rosiers sauvages, l’un blanc, l’autre rouge, qui croissaient en son jardin. Blanche-Rose et Rose-Rouge étaient des enfants bonnes, sages, travailleuses et vaillantes ; elles s’aimaient de tout leur cœur. ....
06KO
LES CLIMATS DU MONDE
Les régions continentales du globe connaissent un climat (un régime météorologique) qui dépend de leur latitude (positionnement nord-sud), de leur altitude et de la distance qui les sépares des principaux plans d'eau de la Terre (mers et océans). La carte ci-dessous montre un découpage des continents selon 8 différents types de régimes météorologiques....
633KO
SIDA
Le syndrome de l'immunodéficience acquise, plus connu sous son acronyme sida, AIDS en anglais, est le nom donné à un ensemble de symptômes (syndrome) consécutifs à la destruction des lymphocytes T CD4+, cellules majeures du système immunitaire. La grande majorité [1] de la communauté scientifique impute cette destruction au Virus de l'immunodéficience humaine ....
640KO
Tabac & Drogue
Remarque préliminaire: Tabac et drogues sont deux problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les adolescents. Quentin Roullier alerte régulièrement les parents à ce sujet et il interdit strictement de fumer dans les locaux du département Danse. L'usage de drogue est passible du conseil de discipline et de la radiation du Conservatoire. Le document suivant a été rédigé par Monsieur Campion qui connaît parfaitement ce sujet...
30KO
TABAGISME
Le tabagisme est une toxicomanie résultant de l'accoutumance ou assuétude au tabac contenu dans les cigarettes, les cigares, le tabac à pipe et à chiquer. La nicotine contenue dans le tabac constitue le principal agent de cette accoutumance (il y en a d'autres, mais d'importance nettement moindre). Certains auteurs disent que la nicotine est, de toutes les drogues licites et illicites, celle qui entraîne la plus forte accoutumance.....
21KO
Romeo et Juliette
Les personnages de Roméo et Juliette apparaissent pour la première fois dans une nouvelle italienne de Luigi da Porta (1485-1529) qui reprenait un sujet déjà développé dans un récit du Novellino de Masuccio de Salerne et traité ensuite par Matteo Bandello dans l'une de ses Nouvelles. Mais c'est la pièce de Shakespeare qui fit de Roméo et Juliette 2 personnages universels....
30KO
La cocaïne
La cocaïne est utilisée de très longue date par les Indiens des Andes qui mâchent les feuilles de coca ou les consomment en infusion pour les aider à résister à la fatigue et à l'altitude. En 1859, le chimiste autrichien Albert Niemann isole le principe actif des feuilles de coca....
256KO










عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-13-2011   المشاركة رقم: 3 (permalink)
المعلومات
الكاتب:
اللقب:
الرتبة
الصورة الرمزية
 
الصورة الرمزية touta


البيانات
التسجيل: Apr 2009
العضوية: 5100
المشاركات: 5,050 [+]
بمعدل : 1.59 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-07-2011 [+]
معدل التقييم:
نقاط التقييم: 56

التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
touta غير متواجد حالياً
وسائل الإتصال:

كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

شكرا أمين بارك الله فيك
وجزاك كل خير









عرض البوم صور touta   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-13-2011   المشاركة رقم: 4 (permalink)
المعلومات
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اللقب:
:: رفيق الدرب ::
الرتبة
الصورة الرمزية
 
الصورة الرمزية maissa


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2008
العضوية: 2528
المشاركات: 12,059 [+]
بمعدل : 3.51 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-06-2011 [+]
معدل التقييم:
نقاط التقييم: 40

التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
maissa غير متواجد حالياً
وسائل الإتصال:

كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

جزاك الله كل خير اخي الكريم على المجهودات المبذولة









عرض البوم صور maissa   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 5 (permalink)
المعلومات
الكاتب:
اللقب:
الرتبة
الصورة الرمزية
 
الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
العضوية: 11432
المشاركات: 8,006 [+]
بمعدل : 2.96 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-07-2011 [+]
معدل التقييم:
نقاط التقييم: 124

التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
وسائل الإتصال:

كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

Water
Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life[1]. It covers 71% of Earth's surface. There are 1.4 billion cubic kilometers (330 million mi³)[2] of it available on Earth. It appears mostly in the oceans (saltwater) and polar ice caps, but it is also present as clouds, rain water, rivers, freshwater aquifers, lakes, airborne vapor and sea ice. Water in these bodies perpetually moves through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff to the sea. Clean water is essential to human life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. Outside of our planet, a significant quantity of water is thought to exist at the north and south poles of the planet Mars, and on the moons Europa and Enceladus.
Chemical and physical properties
Water is the chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless liquid at ambient temperature and pressure. It is a very important solvent, capable of dissolving many other chemical substances, such as salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, some gases and many organic molecules.
Water is unusual in that it is a liquid under normal conditions, when relationships between other analogous hydrides of oxygen's column in the periodic table suggest it should be a gas, as is hydrogen sulfide. If the periodic table is examined, it will be noted that the elements surrounding oxygen are nitrogen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine. All of these elements combine with hydrogen to produce gases at normal temperature and pressure. The reason that oxygen forms a liquid is that it is more electronegative than all of these elements (other than fluorine). Oxygen pulls on electrons much more strongly than hydrogen, leaving a net positive charge on the hydrogen atoms, and a net negative charge on the oxygen atom. The presence of a charge on each of these atoms gives each water molecule a net dipole moment. Electrical attraction between water molecules due to this dipole pulls individual molecules closer together, making it more difficult to separate the molecules and therefore raising the boiling point. This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding.
Water has been referred to as the universal solvent, and is the only real pure substance found naturally on Earth in all three states of matter. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and solid states at standard temperature and pressure. Ionically, water can be described as a hydrogen ion (H+) that is associated with a hydroxide ion (OH-).
High concentrations of dissolved lime make the water of Havasu Falls appear turquoise.
Solvation
Water is a very strong solvent, dissolving many types of substances. The substances that will mix well and dissolve in water (e.g. salts) are known as "hydrophilic" (water-loving) substances, and those that do not mix well with water (e.g. fats and oils), are known as "hydrophobic" (water-fearing) substances. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether or not the substance can match or better the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between other water molecules. If a substance has properties that do not allow it to overcome the strong intermolecular forces between water molecules, the molecules are "pushed out" from amongst the water and do not dissolve.
Cohesion and adhesion
Dew drops adhering to a spider web
Water sticks to itself (cohesion) because it is polar. Water has a partial negative charge (σ-) near the oxygen atom due the unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges (σ+) near the hydrogen atoms. In water, this happens because the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms—that is, it has a stronger "pulling power" on the molecule's electrons, drawing them closer (along with their negative charge) and making the area around the oxygen atom more negative than the area around both of the hydrogen atoms.
Water also has high adhesion properties because of its polar nature.
Surface tension
This daisy is under the water level, which has risen gently and smoothly. Surface tension prevents the water from submerging the flower.
Water has a high surface tension caused by the strong cohesion between water molecules. This can be seen when small quantities of water are put onto a non-soluble surface such as polythene; the water stays together as drops. On extremely clean/smooth glass the water may form a thin film because the molecular forces between glass and water molecules (adhesive forces) are stronger than the cohesive forces.
In biological cells and organelles, water is in contact with membrane and protein surfaces that are hydrophilic; that is, surfaces that have a strong attraction to water. Irving Langmuir observed a strong repulsive force between hydrophilic surfaces. To dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces—to remove the strongly held layers of water of hydration—requires doing substantial work against these forces, called hydration forces. These forces are very large but decrease rapidly over a nanometer or less. Their importance in biology has been extensively studied by V. Adrian Parsegian of the National Institute of Health.[3] They are particularly important when cells are dehydrated by exposure to dry atmospheres or to extracellular freezing.'
Capillary action
Capillary action refers to the process of water moving up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. It occurs because water adheres to the sides of the tube, and then more water is pulled on top of that water through cohesion, which sticks to the sides of the tube. The process is repeated as the water flows up the tube until there is enough water that gravity can counteract the adhesive force.
Heat capacity and heat of vaporization
Water has the second highest specific heat capacity of any known chemical compound, after ammonia, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ mol-1), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature.
Freezing point
A simple but environmentally important and unusual property of water is that its common solid form, ice, floats on its liquid form. This solid phase is not as dense as liquid water because of the geometry of the hydrogen bonds which are formed only at lower temperatures. For almost all other substances the solid form has a greater density than the liquid form. Fresh water at standard atmospheric pressure is most dense at 3.98 °C, and will sink by convection as it cools to that temperature, and if it becomes colder it will rise instead. This reversal will cause deep water to remain warmer than shallower freezing water, so that ice in a body of water will form first at the surface and progress downward, while the majority of the water underneath will hold a constant 4 °C. This effectively insulates a lake floor from the cold. The freezing point of water is 0°C (32°F, 273 K).
Triple point
The triple point of water (the single combination of pressure and temperature at which pure liquid water, ice, and water vapor can coexist in a stable equilibrium) is used to define the kelvin, the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. As a consequence, water's triple point temperature is an exact value rather than a measured quantity : 273.16 kelvins (0.01 °C) and a pressure of 611.73 pascals (0.0060373 atm).
Electrical conductivity
A common misconception about water is that it is a good conductor of electricity, with risks of electrocution explaining this popular belief. Any electrical properties observable in water are from the ions of mineral salts and carbon dioxide dissolved in it. Water does self-ionize where two water molecules become one hydroxide anion and one hydronium cation, but not enough to carry enough electric current to do any work or harm for most operations. In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.055 µS/cm at 25°C. Pure water can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence of dissolved ions this is a very slow process and thus very little current is conducted.
Forms
Water takes many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky; seawater and icebergs in the ocean; glaciers and rivers in the mountains; and aquifers in the ground, to name but a few. Through evaporation, precipitation, and runoff, water is continuously flowing from one form to another, in what is called the water cycle.
Rainbows like this one are formed by rain drops acting as a natural prism.
Because of the importance of precipitation to agriculture, and to mankind in general, different names are given to its various forms: rain is common in most countries, and hail, snow, fog and dew are other examples. When appropriately lit, water drops in the air can refract sunlight to produce rainbows.
Similarly, water runoffs have played major roles in human history as rivers and irrigation brought the water needed for agriculture. Rivers and seas offered opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoffs played a major part in shaping the environment providing river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers.
Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells.
Water can dissolve many different substances imparting upon it different tastes and odors. In fact, humans and other animals have developed senses to be able to evaluate the drink-ability of water: animals generally dislike the taste of salty sea water and the putrid swamps and favor the purer water of a mountain spring or aquifer. The taste advertised in spring water or mineral water derives from the minerals dissolved, while pure H2O is tasteless. As such, purity in spring and mineral water refers to purity from toxins, pollutants, and microbes.
Position of the Earth relating to water
Over two thirds of the earth's surface is covered with water, 97.2% of which is contained in the five oceans. The Antarctic ice sheet, containing 90% of all fresh water on the planet, is visible at the bottom. Atmospheric water vapor can be seen as clouds, contributing to the earth's albedo.
Scientists theorize that most of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. Gary Melnick, a scientist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, explains: "For reasons that aren't entirely understood, when stars are born, their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflowing material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water we observe is quickly produced in this warm dense gas." [4]
The coexistence of the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of water on Earth is vital to the existence of life on Earth. However, if the Earth's location in the solar system were even marginally closer to or further from the Sun (a million miles or so), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.
Earth's mass allows gravity to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a greenhouse effect which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were smaller, a thinner atmosphere would cause temperature extremes preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars).
It has been proposed that life itself may maintain the conditions that have allowed its continued existence. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation), indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.
Effects on life
A captive lion drinking water
From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water is thus essential and central to these metabolic processes.
Water is also central to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration).
Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH−) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Stomach acid (HCl) is useful to digestion. However, its corrosive effect on the esophagus during reflux can temporarily be neutralized by ingestion of a base such as aluminum hydroxide to produce the neutral molecules water and the salt aluminum chloride. Human biochemistry that involves enzymes usually performs optimally around a biologically neutral pH of 7.4.
Aquatic life forms
Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef
Earth's waters are filled with life. Nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales that also live in the water. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain.
Some marine diatoms - a key phytoplankton group
Different water creatures have found different solutions to obtaining oxygen in the water. Fish have gills instead of lungs, though some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air.
Effects on human civilization
A manual water pump in China
Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. Large metropolises like Rotterdam, London, Montreal, Paris, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Chicago owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore and Hong Kong, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.
Health and pollution
Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or "potable water". Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for food preparation is called safe water.
This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Currently, about 1 billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit.[5] Even if this difficult goal is met, it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water supplies and over 1 billion without access to adequate sanitation facilities. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some 5 million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water.
In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. Some 50 countries, with roughly a third of the world’s population, also suffer from medium or high water stress, and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles[citation needed]. The strain affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater resources.
Human uses
For drinking
Main article: Drinking water
About 70% of the fat free mass of the human body is made of water. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most experts agree that 8-10 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.[6] For those who do not have kidney problems, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which can be fatal. The "fact" that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced back to a scientific source.[7] There are other myths such as the effect of water on weight loss and constipation that have been dispelled.[8]
A shower
Original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods."[9] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2.7 liters of water total for women and 3.7 liters for men.[10] Also noted is that normally, about 20 percent of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is lost from the body in urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.
Humans require water that does not contain too many impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. The single largest freshwater resource suitable for drinking is the Lake Baikal in Siberia, which has a very low salt and calcium content and is very clean.









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افتراضي

Tunisia
officially the Tunisian Republic, is a country situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa. It is the northernmost African country and the smallest of the nations situated along the Atlas mountain range. Around forty percent of the country is composed of the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of particularly fertile soil, and a 1300-km coastline. Both played a prominent role in ancient times, first with the famous Phoenician city of Carthage, and later, as the Africa Province, which became known as the bread basket of the Roman Empire.
It is thought that the name Tunis (Arabic for both the nation and capital city) originated from Berber, meaning either a geographical promontory, or, "to spend the night."
Tunisia is in northern Africa, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. It is bordered by Algeria in the west and Libya in the south-east. Much of the land is semi-arid and desert. The north of the country is mountainous, with a climate that is temperate with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The south of the country is dominated by the Sahara desert.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501.html#post443019
Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, petroleum, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs, whilst still heavy, has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Real growth averaged 5.0% in the 1990s, and inflation is slowing. Increased trade and tourism have been key elements in this steady economic growth. Tunisia's association agreement with the European Union (EU), the first such accord between the EU and a Mediterranean country, entered into force on March 1, 1998. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers to trade with the EU over the next decade. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, and improvements in government efficiency are among the challenges for the future of Tunisia.
While the vast majority of modern Tunisians identify themselves as Arab, most Tunisians descend from indigenous Berbers: less than 20% of the Tunisian genepool comes from the Middle East [2]. Numerous civilizations have invaded, migrated to, and been assimilated into the population over the millennia. Significant influxes of population have come through conquest by the Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans, and French. Many Spanish Moors and Jews also arrived at the end of the 15th century.
Nearly all Tunisians (99% of the population) are Muslim. There has been a Jewish population on the southern island of Djerba for 2500 years, and though considerably diminished, there remains a small Jewish population in Tunis which is descended from those who fled Spain in the late 15th century. There is also a small indigenous Christian population[3]. Small nomadic indigenous minorities have been mostly assimilated into the larger population.
Capital : and largest cityTunis
Area :163,610 km²

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/showthread.php?p=443019
Population : July 2005 estimate 10,102,000 (78th) Density 62/km²









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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
born on March 2, 1937, Abdelaziz Bouteflika militates very early for the national cause; it completes its secondary studies when it joined the army of National Release (ALN) in 1956. It is in charge of a double mission of controller general of the wilaya V in 1957 and 1958. Officer in zone 4 and zone 7 of Wilaya V, it is then attached to the PC of the wilaya V, then, successively, with the PC of the “Western COM”, with the PC of the “Western” staff and with the PC of the staff general of the ALN. In 1960,
the Commander Abdelaziz Bouteflika is affected at the southernmost borders of the country to order the “face of Mali” whose creation entered within the framework them measurements aiming at making failure with the companies of division of the country on behalf of the colonial power; what will be worth the name of war to him of If Abdelkader El Mali. In 1961 it enters clandestinely to France within the framework of a mission of contact with the historical leaders of the Revolution held in Aulnoy.
In 1962, Abdelaziz Bouteflika is appointed to 1 'Constituent Assembly and becomes, at 25 years, Minister for youth, the sports and tourism of the first government of independent Algeria.
He is also member of the legislative assembly in 1963, before being named, the same year, Foreign Minister In 1964 it is elected by the congress of the face of National Release in of central committee and member membership of the political office. Abdelaziz Bouteflika takes an active share with the revolutionary readjustment of June 1965 which will see the introduction of the Council of the Revolution - of which he is member - under the presidency of Houari Boumediène.
Taken back in the functions of Foreign Minister, it animates, until 1979, a diplomatic action which will be worth with its country a prestige, a radiation and an influence which will establish Algeria like one of the leaders of the Third World, and, for this reason, like required interlocutor of the great powers.
It thus defines the hot line whose Algerian diplomacy will not be separated thereafter any more, founded on the respect of the international law and the support for the right causes throughout the world.
Senior and recognized diplomat, Abdelaziz Bouteflika will impel, during more than one decade, the foreign politics which concludes the great successfully of the Algerian diplomacy, of which reinforcement and unification of the Arab rows at the time of the Summit of Khartoum of 1967, then at the time of the war of October 1973 against Israel, the international recognition of the borders of Algeria and the introduction of relations of good vicinity and fraternity and the countries bordering, or the failure of the embargo against Algeria following the nationalization of hydrocarbons.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika also plays an important part in the consolidation of the organizations of the
Third World and the reinforcement of their unit of action, in particular through its action at the time of the conference of the 77 and the African top, held respectively in 1967 and 1968 in Algiers. In the same way, it will make Algeria one of the leaders of the movement of the non-aligned one.
It also defends without slackening the processes of decolonization in the world.
Algeria becomes thus the spokesman of the Third World and particularly in its claim for a new international economic order. Elected official unanimously President of the 29th session of the
General meeting of the United Nations, in 1974, Abdelaziz Bouteflika obtains the setting with the round of applause by the international community of the South-African mode for his policy of apartheid and makes admit, in spite of the oppositions, the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization, fire Yasser Arafat, which will make a speech in front of the General meeting. He also chairs, in 1975, the 7th extraordinary session devoted to energy and the raw materials whose Algeria was one of the initiators. With died of President Boumédiène, in 1978, and as a nearer companion to late, it pronounces a noticed funeral oration. But it becomes, as of this year, the principal target of the policy of “deboumedienisation” and is constrained with an exile which will last more than 6 years.
It is back in Algeria in January 1987 and will be signatory of the “motion of 18” consecutive to the events of October 1988.
It takes share with the congress of the FLN in 1989, which will elect it member of the central committee. Had a presentiment of to occupy the functions of minister-adviser of the High Committee of State, presidential authority transitory installation between 1992 and 1994, then of permanent representative at UNO, Abdelaziz Bouteflika declines these proposals, as it will not take action pursuant, in 1994, with the requests of which it is the object for his accession with the functions of Head of the State within the framework of the methods and the mechanisms of the transition. In l998 December, it announces its decision to be presented, as an independent candidate, with the anticipated presidential election of April 1999. Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected President of the Republic on April 15, 1999. As of his taking up of duties, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika reaffirms his determination to restore safety, peace and stability. For this purpose, it engages a legislative process of civil harmony, devoted, on September 16, 1999, by a referendum which collects more than 98% of votes in favour.
The progressive re-establishment of safety makes it possible to President Bouteflika to start, on the interior level, a vast program of recasting of the Algerian State, through the reform of the structures and the missions of the State, the legal system, the education system as well as a daring batch of measures economic, comprising in particular a reform of the banking structure intended to make the economy Algerian more powerful, which will make it possible Algeria to enter the market economy, to join again with the growth and to carry out particularly high growth rates.
The President of the Republic also decides, during its first mandate, of the constitutionalization of Tamazight and his dedication as a national language. At the international level, under the impulse of the President Bouteflika, Algeria réapproprie its role of leader. It plays an active part unceasingly more important at the continental level within the framework of the African Union and the New Partnership for the Development of Africa (NEPAD), whose Head of the State is one of the initiators.
At the Mediterranean level, Algeria concludes an Agreement from Association with the European Union, on April 22, 2001. Algeria, become a listened partner of G8, regularly takes part in its Summits, since the year 2000. In parallel, President Bouteflika does not spare any effort to make possible the continuation of the construction of the Union of the Arab Maghreb. On February 22, 2004, Abdelaziz Bouteflika announces its intention to be presented for a second presidential mandate.
Extremely positive results of its first mandate, it conducts campaign to defend the broad topics of its project of company, in particular the national reconciliation, the revision of the code the family, the fight against the corruption and the continuation of the committed reforms.
It is re-elected, on April 8, 2004, with meadows of 85% of the voices.
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
[IMG]file:///D:/DOCUME%7E1/mod/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.jpg[/IMG]
born on March 2, 1937, Abdelaziz Bouteflika militates very early for the national cause; it completes its secondary studies when it joined the army of National Release (ALN) in 1956. It is in charge of a double mission of controller general of the wilaya V in 1957 and 1958. Officer in zone 4 and zone 7 of Wilaya V, it is then attached to the PC of the wilaya V, then, successively, with the PC of the “Western COM”, with the PC of the “Western” staff and with the PC of the staff general of the ALN. In 1960,
the Commander Abdelaziz Bouteflika is affected at the southernmost borders of the country to order the “face of Mali” whose creation entered within the framework them measurements aiming at making failure with the companies of division of the country on behalf of the colonial power; what will be worth the name of war to him of If Abdelkader El Mali. In 1961 it enters clandestinely to France within the framework of a mission of contact with the historical leaders of the Revolution held in Aulnoy.
In 1962, Abdelaziz Bouteflika is appointed to 1 'Constituent Assembly and becomes, at 25 years, Minister for youth, the sports and tourism of the first government of independent Algeria.
He is also member of the legislative assembly in 1963, before being named, the same year, Foreign Minister In 1964 it is elected by the congress of the face of National Release in of central committee and member membership of the political office. Abdelaziz Bouteflika takes an active share with the revolutionary readjustment of June 1965 which will see the introduction of the Council of the Revolution - of which he is member - under the presidency of Houari Boumediène.
Taken back in the functions of Foreign Minister, it animates, until 1979, a diplomatic action which will be worth with its country a prestige, a radiation and an influence which will establish Algeria like one of the leaders of the Third World, and, for this reason, like required interlocutor of the great powers.
It thus defines the hot line whose Algerian diplomacy will not be separated thereafter any more, founded on the respect of the international law and the support for the right causes throughout the world.
Senior and recognized diplomat, Abdelaziz Bouteflika will impel, during more than one decade, the foreign politics which concludes the great successfully of the Algerian diplomacy, of which reinforcement and unification of the Arab rows at the time of the Summit of Khartoum of 1967, then at the time of the war of October 1973 against Israel, the international recognition of the borders of Algeria and the introduction of relations of good vicinity and fraternity and the countries bordering, or the failure of the embargo against Algeria following the nationalization of hydrocarbons.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika also plays an important part in the consolidation of the organizations of the
Third World and the reinforcement of their unit of action, in particular through its action at the time of the conference of the 77 and the African top, held respectively in 1967 and 1968 in Algiers. In the same way, it will make Algeria one of the leaders of the movement of the non-aligned one.
It also defends without slackening the processes of decolonization in the world.
Algeria becomes thus the spokesman of the Third World and particularly in its claim for a new international economic order. Elected official unanimously President of the 29th session of the
General meeting of the United Nations, in 1974, Abdelaziz Bouteflika obtains the setting with the round of applause by the international community of the South-African mode for his policy of apartheid and makes admit, in spite of the oppositions, the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization, fire Yasser Arafat, which will make a speech in front of the General meeting. He also chairs, in 1975, the 7th extraordinary session devoted to energy and the raw materials whose Algeria was one of the initiators. With died of President Boumédiène, in 1978, and as a nearer companion to late, it pronounces a noticed funeral oration. But it becomes, as of this year, the principal target of the policy of “deboumedienisation” and is constrained with an exile which will last more than 6 years.
It is back in Algeria in January 1987 and will be signatory of the “motion of 18” consecutive to the events of October 1988.
It takes share with the congress of the FLN in 1989, which will elect it member of the central committee. Had a presentiment of to occupy the functions of minister-adviser of the High Committee of State, presidential authority transitory installation between 1992 and 1994, then of permanent representative at UNO, Abdelaziz Bouteflika declines these proposals, as it will not take action pursuant, in 1994, with the requests of which it is the object for his accession with the functions of Head of the State within the framework of the methods and the mechanisms of the transition. In l998 December, it announces its decision to be presented, as an independent candidate, with the anticipated presidential election of April 1999. Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected President of the Republic on April 15, 1999. As of his taking up of duties, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika reaffirms his determination to restore safety, peace and stability. For this purpose, it engages a legislative process of civil harmony, devoted, on September 16, 1999, by a referendum which collects more than 98% of votes in favour.
The progressive re-establishment of safety makes it possible to President Bouteflika to start, on the interior level, a vast program of recasting of the Algerian State, through the reform of the structures and the missions of the State, the legal system, the education system as well as a daring batch of measures economic, comprising in particular a reform of the banking structure intended to make the economy Algerian more powerful, which will make it possible Algeria to enter the market economy, to join again with the growth and to carry out particularly high growth rates.
The President of the Republic also decides, during its first mandate, of the constitutionalization of Tamazight and his dedication as a national language. At the international level, under the impulse of the President Bouteflika, Algeria réapproprie its role of leader. It plays an active part unceasingly more important at the continental level within the framework of the African Union and the New Partnership for the Development of Africa (NEPAD), whose Head of the State is one of the initiators.
At the Mediterranean level, Algeria concludes an Agreement from Association with the European Union, on April 22, 2001. Algeria, become a listened partner of G8, regularly takes part in its Summits, since the year 2000. In parallel, President Bouteflika does not spare any effort to make possible the continuation of the construction of the Union of the Arab Maghreb. On February 22, 2004, Abdelaziz Bouteflika announces its intention to be presented for a second presidential mandate.
Extremely positive results of its first mandate, it conducts campaign to defend the broad topics of its project of company, in particular the national reconciliation, the revision of the code the family, the fight against the corruption and the continuation of the committed reforms.
It is re-elected, on April 8, 2004, with meadows of 85% of the voices.









عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 8 (permalink)
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الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
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المشاركات: 8,006 [+]
بمعدل : 2.96 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-07-2011 [+]
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التوقيت

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الحالة:
محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

Nobel prize Winners
1996
  • Biology - Presented jointly to Anders Barheim and Hogne Sandvik of the University of Bergen, Norway, for their report, "Effect of Ale, Garlic, and Soured Cream on the Appetite of Leeches.".
1997
  • Entomology - Presented to Mark Hostetler of the University of Florida, for his book, That Gunk on Your Car, which identifies the insect splats that appear on
1998
·Safety Engineering - Presented to Troy Hurtubise, of North Bay, Ontario, for developing and personally testing a suit of armor that is impervious to grizzly bears.
·"
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
  • Physics - Presented to Jack Harvey, John Culveno, Warren Payne, Steve Cowle, Michael Lawrance, David Stuart, and Robyn Williams of Australia, for their irresistible report "An Analysis of the Forces Required to Drag Sheep over Various Surfaces."
2004
2005
  • Nutrition - Presented to Dr. Yoshiro Nakamatsu of Tokyo, Japan, for photographing and retrospectively analyzing every meal he has consumed during a period of 34 years (and counting).
2006









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الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
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المشاركات: 8,006 [+]
بمعدل : 2.96 يوميا
اخر زياره : 08-07-2011 [+]
معدل التقييم:
نقاط التقييم: 124

التوقيت

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الحالة:
محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي


Physicist
1885 - 1962
The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the
opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.
—Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr was born on October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Bohr made numerous contributions to our understanding of atomic structure and quantum mechanics. He won the 1922 Nobel Prize for physics, chiefly for his work on the structure of atoms.

: منتديات صحابي http://www.s7aby.com/t57501.html#post443022

Bohr received his doctorate in physics from the University of Copenhagen in 1911. He then traveled to Manchester, England to study under Ernest Rutherford.

In 1913 Bohr published a theory about the structure of the atom based on an earlier theory of Rutherford's. Rutherford had shown that the atom consisted of a positively charged nucleus, with negatively charged electrons in orbit around it. Bohr expanded upon this theory by proposing that electrons travel only in certain successively larger orbits. He suggested that the outer orbits could hold more electrons than the inner ones, and that these outer orbits determine the atom's chemical properties. Bohr also described the way atoms emit radiation by suggesting that when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to an inner one, that it emits light. Later other physicists expanded his theory into quantum mechanics. This theory explains the structure and actions of complex atoms.

Bohr became a professor of physics at the University of Copenhagen in 1916. In 1920 Bohr was named director of the newly constructed Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University. Bohr became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1926, receiving the Royal Society Copley Medal in 1938. During World War II, Bohr fled Copenhagen to escape the Nazis. He traveled to Los Alamos, New Mexico to advise the scientists developing the first atomic bomb. He returned to Copenhagen after the war and later promoted the peaceful use of atomic energy.










عرض البوم صور محمد الامين   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-14-2011   المشاركة رقم: 10 (permalink)
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الكاتب:
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الصورة الرمزية محمد الامين


البيانات
التسجيل: Jul 2010
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المشاركات: 8,006 [+]
بمعدل : 2.96 يوميا
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التوقيت

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الحالة:
محمد الامين غير متواجد حالياً
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كاتب الموضوع : محمد الامين المنتدى : منتدى خاص بالبحوث و الكتب المدرسية
افتراضي

Native Americans in the United States



American Indian and Alaskan Natives (term preferred by the majority of people included) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which are still enduring as political communities. There is some controversy surrounding the names used to describe these peoples: they are also known as Native Americans, Indians, American Indians, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Indigenous, Aboriginal or Original Americans. In Canada they are known as First Nations, and those nations unique to that nation-state are covered in the article First Nations.
The U.S. states and several of the inhabited insular areas that are not part of the continental U.S. also contain indigenous groups. Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not always counted as Native Americans, although the US Census 2000 demographics listed "American Indian and Alaskan Native" collectively. Nor are Native Hawaiians (also known as Kanaka Māoli and Kanaka 'Oiwi) or various other Pacific Islander American peoples such as the Chamorros.
Current status

There are 563 Federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. The United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes possess the right to form their own government, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal), to tax, to establish membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money. According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559 .

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Maryland also has a non-recognized tribal nation-the Piscataway Indian Nation
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Cultural aspects

Though cultural features, including language, garb, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.
Early hunter-gatherer tribes forged stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, newer technologies were used and more efficient weapons produced. Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry. The most common implement were the bow and arrow, the war club, and the spear. Quality, material, and design varied widely.
Large mammals such as the mammoth were largely extinct by around 8,000 B.C., and the Native Americans were hunting their descendants, such as bison. The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans. The acquisition of the horse and horsemanship from the Spanish in the 17th century greatly altered the natives' culture, changing the way in which these large creatures were hunted and making them a central feature of their lives.
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Society and art

The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries.
Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use. Superior weaving, embroided decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.
Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting. The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony.
Religion

The most widespread religion at the present time is known as the Native American Church. It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity. Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. The church has had significant success in combatting many of the ills brought by colonization, such as alcoholism and crime[citation needed]. In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral.[26] Native American-Catholic syncretism is also found elsewhere in the U.S. (e.g., the National Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine in Fonda, New York and the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs in Auriesville, New York).
Native Americans are the only known ethnic group in the United States requiring a federal permit to practice their religion. The eagle feather law, (Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations), stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally-recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. Native Americans and non-Native Americans frequently contest the value and validity of the eagle feather law, charging that the law is laden with discriminatory racial preferences and infringes on tribal sovereignty. The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans, a common modern and traditional practice. Many non-Native Americans have been adopted into Native American families, made tribal members and given eagle feathers.
Many Native Americans would describe their religious practices as a form of spirituality, rather than religion, although in practice the terms may sometimes be used interchangeably.
Gender roles

Most Native American tribes had traditional gender roles. In some tribes, such as the Iroquois nation, social and clan relationships were matrilinear and/or matriarchal, although several different systems were in use. Men hunted, traded and made war, while women cared for the young and the elderly, fashioned clothing and instruments and cured meat. The cradle board was used by mothers to carry their baby while working or traveling. However, in some (but not all) tribes a kind of transgender was permitted; see Two-Spirit.
Music and art



Native American music is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. Traditional Native American music often includes drumming and/or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation. Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles (as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto). The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step.
Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, such as Rita Coolidge, Wayne Newton, Tori Amos and Redbone (band). Some, such as John Trudell have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings. A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.
The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum. Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs. Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community.

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Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery, paintings, jewelry, weavings, sculptures, basketry, and carvings.


Artists have at times misrepresented themselves as having native parentage, most notably Johnny Cash, who traced his heritage to Scottish ancestors and admitted he fabricated a story that he was one-quarter Cherokee. The integrity of certain Native American artworks is now protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist.
Economy

The Inuit, or Eskimo, prepared and buried stocks of dried meat and fish. Pacific Northwest tribes crafted seafaring dugouts 40-50 feet long for fishing. Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops. On the Plains, some tribes engaged in agriculture but also planned buffalo hunts in which herds were efficiently driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals and gathered acorns to grind into a flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones. Some groups on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts.
As these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for trinkets, blankets, iron, and steel implements, horses, firearms, and alcoholic beverages.
Terminology differences

When Christopher Columbus arrived in the "New World", he described the people he encountered as Indians because he mistakenly believed that he had reached India, the original destination of his voyage. Despite Columbus's mistake, the name Indian (or American Indian) stuck, and for centuries the native people of the Americas were collectively called Indians in America, and similar terms in Europe. The problem with this traditional term is that the peoples of India are, of course, also known as Indians. A usage in British English was to refer to natives of North America as 'Red Indians', though this is now an old fashioned usage and considered insulting.
Common usage in the U.S.

The term Native American was originally introduced in the United States by anthropologists as a more accurate term for the indigenous people of the Americas, as distinguished from the people of India. Because of the widespread acceptance of this newer term in and outside of academic circles, some people believe that Indians was outdated or offensive. People from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are known as Indian Americans.
However, some American Indians have misgivings about the term Native American. Russell Means, a famous American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians. Furthermore, some American Indians question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present. Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in the Americas could be considered "native". However, very often the compound "Native American" will be capitalized in order to differentiate this intended meaning from others. Likewise, "native" (small 'n') can be further qualified by formulations such as "native-born" when the intended meaning is only to indicate place of birth or origin.
A 1996 survey revealed that more American Indians in the United States still preferred American Indian to Native American. Nonetheless, most American Indians are comfortable with Indian, American Indian, and Native American, and the terms are now used interchangeably. The continued usage of the traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened in 2004 in Washington, D.C..
Recently, the U.S. Census introduced the "Asian Indian" category to more accurately sample the Indian American population.









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